Conducting a rigorous examination, documentation and quality improvement program through implementation research is an integral part of the work carried out by the International Institute for Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In an effort to monitor the effectiveness of Ethiopia’s Primary Health Care system, identify weaknesses, address them through new bold innovative approaches, IIfPHC-E will carry out need-based implementation research. Moreover, reviews of various types of global evidence and experiences will also be compiled and made publicly available in its Resource Center. There is a large gap between what is known and what is consistently being done. Through Primary Health Care research, the Institute will also be able to provide up-to-date information on the strengths and weaknesses of Ethiopia’s own Primary Health Care system. Thereby, the institute will also contribute to ensuring fidelity to high-quality standards of care, and high levels of population coverage of Primary Health Care services, and continued improvements in the health of the population.